Monday, 5 August 2013


Today nearly all companies recognize the role of information technology in business format undertaken. A wide range of information technology projects ranging from office administration automation (back office) to improve efficiency through the development of front office systems that are developed simultaneously in strategic portfolio management. In general, projects information technology or information in corporate systems can be divided into several types in certain cyclical nature as seen in the following figure.

The planning and development of an information system begins with analyzing the needs business or management company (Business Requirements Analysis). There are two main objectives of the measure this early. The first objective is to determine the position or role of information technology in accordance with the company concerned. It is worth noting given that information technology has a unique role for each company. For retail banking, for example, the role of typically developed information technology aims to capture customers as much, or more emphasis on front office functions, while for corporate banking, possible role of information technology in process automation dominated functions back office.

In other words, the results of this stage is an understanding of the position of information technology most appropriate (NAMEs) for the company concerned. This will be the main basis of thought for further development of information systems, especially in terms of determining the amount of investment deserves to be budgeted. The second objective of this stage is to define in detail the types of information both in abundance.

Once the business requirements are defined, the next step is to carry out a plan strategic development in information technology is commonly called the Information Technology Strategic Planning. The output of this step is actually quite simple, the blue print plan development of information systems for the short term, medium term and long term. in addition to was also compiled related techniques to support the implementation of the implementation of projects such, for example, the format necessary organizational structures, methods of cooperation with other companies, priorities, project management standards, processes and procedures tender, and so forth.

Source: Renaissance Advisors, 1997

To manage so many projects in the information technology companies - which on the one hand intertwined
each other and on the other hand consists of separate modules (for the purposes of divisions apart anyway) - we need a special management to monitor the implementation of each projects in the portfolio. Every project starts from the stage of planning is, analysis, design, construction, implementation and post-implementation stage should be monitored appropriately. reason The first is to ensure the success of programs that are targeted according to need (especially in terms of time and cost). The second reason is to ensure the use of different utilization kinds of resources (money, time, people, opportunities, information, etc..) which in addition to expensive, also very limited existence. Another reason is to maintain the integrity of the entire project is done, so that avoid conflicts of interest or job redundancy.

The next process in the cycle of development of information technology management in the company is project (Information Technology Project Management) itself. Broadly speaking there are three types of projects which dominates most companies in Indonesia. The first group is all kinds of projects with respect to the physical construction of information technology infrastructure, ranging from cable installation, procurement of computers, until the construction of some sort of computer network LAN or WAN. The second group is the implementation of a package of software (application software) purchased companies, ranging from retail modules series up to Microsoft's corporate information system level of SAP, Oracle, and BAAN. The last group is commonly referred to in-house custom development, namely the development of software applications by internal human resources company, by using common programming languages ​​such as Visual Basic, Cobol, RPG, and Pascal, which combined with a database system like Microsoft Access, SQL Server, Oracle, or Fox Pro. Noteworthy in this regard is the discipline and foothold in consistent philosophy of project management in the field of information technology for each type of development nationally and internationally has proved its effectiveness.

After each successful project implemented, the next thing to note is techniques maintenance management information system which has been developed and implemented. management system maintenance (maintenance, supports, and services) is not only associated with how to physically maintain existing infrastructure and always provide service to user or users satisfactorily, but more than that. Things like the steps should be taken if the system should be modified in minor or major, processes or procedures to be followed if there is a new demand for information, decision-making on budget should be developed on an ad-hoc for sudden needs, providing training to employees (users) new, is an example of the variety of activities that should be clear procedures and implementation management. Not uncommon that companies have to pay maintenance was much greater than the cost of developing the computer system itself simply because no the maintenance of good management. Please remember that the greatest element of the development costs information technology is usually not considered the company's management is hidden costs with respect to the maintenance needs of the system.

For companies who depend on the reliability of the information technology activities (service companies such as banks, insurance, securities, stock exchange, telecommunications, etc..), need to be held an analysis of the information technology system that is currently owned by the risks associated with management that may arise in the future. 's Security issues such as data or systems, internal controls on the use of systems, contingency planning if there are infrastructure components suddenly broken (e.g. telecommunications networks via satellite is damaged, is there a replacement?), lane communication may be intercepted others, are examples of factors that need to be considered. The reason is simple. If the company concerned is a component of information technology The main way of doing business, very little damage or abnormalities occur in related systems, will have a negative impact that significantly affect the performance of the company (not covered potential losses on a large business within a short time: imagine how the value of money
lost if the computer system clock in the stock exchange trading floor suddenly broken!).

Last process that occurs in the development cycle in enterprise information systems is what often named as Information System Effectiveness Review. In the current era of globalization, the natural business competition was such a weight. To compete with competitors in similar industries, supply of goods / products or services more cheaply with better quality not enough used as a primary weapon. Another thing is the key to survive in this century is the ability of a company to adapt quickly to changing nature of competition which also moves so fast. Even for some kind of industry could count per second! In other words, the dynamic business changes occur, which are directly or indirectly impact on corporate strategy, should always be confirmed with the presence or existence information systems that have been owned. Frequently the case in which the needs of the company at the time of a information technology project started already much different from when the business needs of the project completed (aka the software program that is made is not 100% fit again needs of the company). To overcome this, the management company must periodically and continuously assess and analyze the effectiveness of technology in the information held answer the current needs (current) of the company. Please note that the information technology only an aspect of supply within a company, whose existence is the answer the demand aspect, ie the information system itself.

In the end the cycle of development of information technology will be back in action defining
business needs are constantly changing as described from time to time. Even sometimes
experienced by some companies to change its business strategy after seeing the opportunities
Another development offered by information technology.

By knowing this cycle, it is expected that managers of information systems (EDP Division, Department of
Information Technology, Data Processing Section, etc..) Can easily sort through and analyze
projects in the portfolio management of the development of information technology, so it can be
known position of its evolution. By knowing the position, will further facilitate the
undertake the management of each project or program that has been launched by the company. in
Moreover, this cycle has also been shown to be helpful in terms of providing boundaries or scope
development of information technology projects involving external parties,
such as vendors, consultants, business associates, and so forth.